In 2002 Roy asked Lawrence A. Hansen, a neuropathologist at UC San Diego who is unusual in his willingness to question animal research, to evaluate Lisberger's protocol. "I have never previously encountered experiments that would deliver quite so much suffering to higher primates for so comparatively little scientific gain...." Hansen wrote afterward. "While I do not doubt that these experimental manipulations will generate valid scientific data, such information is purchased at too high a moral and ethical cost. Even the primary investigator seems to feel it necessary to disguise his actual motivations, which are those of a fundamental research scientist, by invoking a link to a cure for Alzheimer's disease. This is one of the more ludicrous stretches from basic science to human application that I have ever encountered in my 20 years of research into Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases affecting human beings."
When we spoke to Hansen recently, he criticized Lisberger's grant applications and said, "He's picked a part of the brain that's not even involved in Alzheimer's."
Lisberger's studies are "basic science," meaning that they aim to answer larger scientific questions about how something works â€“ in this case, the brain â€“ rather than to invent or test a treatment. Although it might be somewhat easier to stomach an experiment that might cure Alzheimer's than one that seeks to understand how the brain functions, it is hard to dispute that this is valid science: How can medical researchers cure problems they fundamentally don't understand?
But even if you agree that the goals of Lisberger's research justify his use of animals, you might be troubled by Lisberger's record. Documents show that some animals enrolled in his research have a difficult time coping with the physical stress involved â€“ and that Lisberger has resisted efforts to make his experiments more animal-friendly.
Clinical notes gathered by IDA and other groups show that Lisberger's monkeys routinely undergo six or eight surgeries just to deal with their various implants and the infections they sometimes cause, or to remove scar tissue that has built up on the monkeys' dura, the protective layer between skull and brain, because of repeated electrode insertions. Several monkeys in Lisberger's lab have shown a significant decrease in body weight, and others have displayed a habit of self-mutilation, biting at their limbs and tearing out their hair.
Several years ago, when the internal committee that oversees animal research at UCSF raised concerns about whether monkeys in Lisberger's experiments would receive sufficient water, particularly if they were "worked" on consecutive weeks, Lisberger responded in writing. "I am not willing to tie my laboratory's flexibility down by setting guidelines or limits, or by agreeing to a negotiation with the veterinary staff when we do this," he wrote in a June 1998 letter. "I believe that the experimental schedule in my laboratory is an issue of academic freedom and that the Committee on Animal research lacks that [sic] standing to regulate this schedule."
In fact, the Animal Welfare Act was amended in 1985 to give the committee the primary responsibility for watchdogging researchers and ensuring that measures are taken to minimize the suffering of lab animals.